Among general books on metaphors, models, and paradigms, the touchstone book is by Thomas Kuhn.
- Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3d Ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996. Kuhn’s book on how scientific theories emerge, evolve, and succumb to other theories in a Darwinian cycle set the philosophy of science on its ear when it was first published in 1962. It’s clear and short, and it’s loaded with interesting examples of the rise and fall of metaphors, models, and paradigms in science. Buy from Amazon.com
- Floyd, Robert W. "The Paradigms of Programming." 1978 Turing Award Lecture. Communications of the ACM, August 1979, pp. 455–60. This is a fascinating discussion of models in software development and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the topic.